September 9, 2021

HAVANNA IN DETAIL

  How have architectural typologies influenced the way that humans have lived in havana, from the  XVI century until the present?     EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGIES IN HAVANNA   Urban Patterns of Havana   Since its establishment by the Spanish in the 16th century, Havana, taking the advantage of the ports, started its booming […]
 

How have architectural typologies influenced the way that humans have lived in havana, from the  XVI century until the present?

   

EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGIES IN HAVANNA

 
Urban Patterns of Havana
  Since its establishment by the Spanish in the 16th century, Havana, taking the advantage of the ports, started its booming export economy based on slave and sugar trade which had provided funds for the building construction in both private estates and public areas. In the 1700s, it became one of the most important cities in Latin America.1   Its modern urban layout comes from the Spanish urban planning tradition - multiple churches and squares supplemented by regular street grids that vary in the length and width of the streets and the size of the blocks. These urban grids form a radial pattern of blocks from the harbor to the south and to the west. In addition, the size of each area demonstrates a certain relationship with its different local condition and history. The Old Havana with the longest history in the capital owns the smallest regular grid. The blocks are smaller and the streets are shorter. Compared to other areas, the overall geometric order of its urban grid in this area is not as consistent as in the young areas.2 For example, comparing Old Havana with EL Vedado, which was built in the mid-18th century on the west side of the old city, their street structure and scale are obviously different. As a relatively young area, Vedado‘s urban design shows its own uniqueness compared with Havana‘s established urban planning. One of the novel aspects is the geographical direction of the block at a 45-degree angle to the rest of the city to take full advantage of the breeze. Another aspect is to include trees into its regular streets, promenades and city parks. In addition, wide roads, sidewalks and parterres would facilitate years later the arrival of the automobile.3 
Districts of Havana
  Although Havana, as the capital of Cuba, is divided into fifteen municipalities in the regulation, it can essentially be described as a combination of three cities in the eyes of locals, namely Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana (Spanish: La Habana Vieja) is the center of the original city of Havana, Cuba. This area is well known for its long history and rich architectural style, also for its narrow streets and overhanging balconies. Old Havana is now the traditional center of commerce, industry and entertainment as well as an important residential area in the capital.4 Vedado, a new district in the north and west of Havana, is known for its historically upscale atmosphere and a series of detached villas, called quintas, with gardens and porches, that built in neoclassical style for the nobility in the nineteenth century.5 Since more hotels, offices and residential buildings, restaurants, bistros and theaters were built in the 20th century, EL Vedado has become a lively area. In particular, Street 23 has become a vital cultural, leisure and commercial center.6 The shopping area between Vedado and Old Havana, Centro Habana, is sometimes considered as part of Vedado. The relatively affluent residential and industrial area in the west of the capital is the third district of Havana, which includes Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city.7
Architectural Languages of Havana
  As a part of city culture, architecture is deeply influenced by the historical background of a city, especially in Havana, its architecture shows unique historical forces and characteristics. The Spanish colonial legacy from the middle 16th century to late 19th century is displayed on the stage that Havana provides for architecture: colorful examples of neoclassicism, eclecticism, Art Nouveau, and Art Deco. These buildings in western style are in stark contrast with the modern hotels and urban development of the 20th century.8 All these together define the overall character of this city: mixture. Various structures and styles competed for attention. However, it is worth mentioning that these buildings and structures built in styles imported from other countries were not simply preserved for centuries in Cuba. Their existence passed the test of time, adapted with the local hot and humid climate, materials, living conditions and other factors, becoming more suitable for the life of local residents. For example, in order to avoid over-strong sunlight exposure, arcades became one of the unifying features for the diverse architectural landscape of urban blocks in most parts of the city.9 
Havana’s Architectural Evolution
  One of the most important aspects of Havana architecture is the recognition of the importance of Old Havana as a World Heritage. There are a lot of valuable architectural treasures in the old city: Spanish colonial buildings, Baroque churches and neoclassical buildings all over the narrow streets and alleys.10 When Havana was established in 1519 during the process of colonisation after the arrival of Spaniards, its urban structure was planned to be very compact. This was due to the consideration of the dry weather of southern Spain rather than the humid climate of the Caribbean islands. This makes most colonial houses built on this street grid show an introverted character. As time goes by, the existing urban structure was never abandoned, but the envelope structure of the introverted houses (walls, roofs and windows) gradually adapted to the local climate conditions. Due to the densification of the city center during the 20th century, the old Havana became even more compact. Now the streets of the old city are narrow, although it can provide shade during the day, but it hinders natural ventilation. The only open space in each building is its internal courtyard for natural ventilation and social interaction, most of which are small. Residential buildings as the most basic building type in a city, the study of its evolution is the best way to understand the localization process of architecture according to local climate conditions and lifestyles.11 
There are three main periods of the evolution process of residential buildings in the old city.
  The first period is from rural ‘‘bohío’’ to urban courtyard house along the 16th century. The first house built by the Spanish was based on the rectangular aboriginal „bohío“ type, which consists of plank-like walls and palm-thatch roof. Due to the high flammability of „bohío“ materials, these houses were gradually replaced after the fire. During the 16th century, important developments occurred in the evolution of the house. After a series of changes such as the occupation of the whole front line (6b), extension of the open covered space for horses and house provisions in the backyard (6c), and later the transformation to internal space (6d), the first isolated Bohemian type (Figure 6a) gradually evolved into a courtyard (Figure 6d). The reason for this change is the improvement of building materials on the one hand, and the influence of the bricklayers and operators from Spain on the other. Because the courtyard provides light and fresh air for the interior and private space for the outdoors activities, the Moorish courtyard house in Andalusia was considered a symbol of well- being.12 
The second period can be divided into two types.
  Type 1 is the transformation of one-family house on narrow plots from the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Because of the limitations of the narrow and slender plots, the layout of the house has not changed except for the use of space. The layout of one-family houses on narrow plots includes lateral courtyards. Depending on the depth of the plot, the house has one or two courtyards. The first courtyard is more representative and decorative, while the second courtyard called „traspatio“ is used for family activities. Over time, the ceiling height changed from 3.00 to 5.50 m for the ventilation and/or thermal comfort conditions. At first, the pitched roof called „alfarges“ was made of timber covered by red tiles (7a and b), and later became a flat roof with timber as the main material. The design of the facade changes according to the style of the time. At the same time, the size of the windows was increased to allow more light and promote ventilation. In addition, louvers or Venetian blinds were added to the windows (7c), and later the ‘‘luceta’’ or stained glass was added to the upper part of the doors and windows (7d).13  Type 2 is one-family houses of the wealthiest families on wide plots from the 17th to the 19th century. The house has one or two open courtyards. The galleries surrounding the patio were used as a transitional space between the courtyard and the interior. They transformed from a narrow covered space for circulation (8a) into a wide continuous space (8b). Some of the existing galleries in the19th century were closed or opened with large operable windows (8c). The zaguán or entrance hall moved to the central position in line with the courtyard and became wider to permitted air circulation. The balcony evolved from being individual for each opening (8a) to extend along the entire facade (8b and c). There is a balustrade on the balcony to let the breeze into the room. In the 18th century, houses with facades facing the main square began to add open porches, which were supported by regularly spaced columns at the building facade (8b). On the one hand, they created a transitional space from which residents can enter the house through zaguán; on the other hand, they also provided shading and rain protection for pedestrians and the space.14 Third period occurred from the end of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century and is about multi-family and mixed buildings. Major historical events in Cuba, such as the war against Spanish colonization and the Cuban Revolution, provoked big architectural and urban changes in Havana. The wealthiest families moved out of the inner city and started building eclectic villas in the new areas of ‘‘Cerro’’ and ‘‘Vedado’’. After that, the process of „adapting“ Havana’s houses to the climate and local customs stopped in Old Havana. The Colonial houses were occupied and subdivided by servants and former slaves. These houses that can accommodate multiple families are called „Solares“ or „Ciudadelas“.  A new typology ‘‘Cuartería’’ (9a) also appeared for the worker class. These buildings of one or two floors have a lateral or central courtyard.15

The Old City of Havana

  La Habana Vieja is the oldest part of the city and thus the starting point for the development and growth of the metropolis. According to tradition, the first mass and the first city council meeting was held here in 1519, in a place known today through the monument of El Templete. La Habana Vieja is home to the city‘s most important colonial buildings, including some fortifications. Originally the area was surrounded by a defensive wall, which was removed in the 19th century. Today it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the Bay of Havana to the east and to the south by the territory of Centro Habana to the west. There are around 6200 buildings on an area of ​​4.32 square kilometers, around 3500 of which are in the historic core. According to the 2002 census, the population density is about 22000 inhabitants per square kilometer. Although the urban area is laid out according to the principle of a regular grid, in many places it has been adapted to the course of the terrain and the existing ownership structure. The result is a network of narrow streets, which is interrupted by five large squares, several small squares and a few green areas. The narrow streets and the shadows cast by the buildings on both sides encourage pedestrian traffic in a unique environment due to the proximity of the sea and the port. After the end of the colonial period, in the first decades of the 20th century, striking structural changes were made in La Habana Vieja, which show clear influences from North American architecture. Spain, until then Cuba‘s most important cultural model, has now been replaced by the United States. Many buildings arose, especially  offices and banks in the eclectic style. From an architectural and urban planning point of view, old Havana, whose homogeneity has been preserved to this day, has a high aesthetic and functional level. The culturally and historically valuable ensemble of streets and squares, buildings and courtyards is one of the most attractive sights in Cuba and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982.16

Old Town Renovation

  The small town of San Christobal de la Habana was developed without a special structure. She followed the demands of the first residents. When the Spanish colonial laws began to be applied in general, which stipulated that the founding of a city as a chessboard should start from a main square, Havana already had three squares and a right-angled street network.  In the 17th century there were already five squares: to the first 3, Plaza der Armas, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza Nueva, today Vieja, there were Ciénaga, later La Catedral, and San Cristo del Buen Viaje. The special peculiarity of adding more small squares in front of monasteries and churches to the urban landscape also comes from this time. The city owes its development and splendor to the sea. the small provincial port developed into the main transshipment point, benefiting from its excellent location in the sheltered bay. In the 17th century, 3 fortifications protected the defense: Real Fuerza, Tres Reyes del Morro and San Salvador del la Punta. There were city walls on the land and sea side. In 1762 Havana was taken by the English. After the city had reverted to the Spanish crown in 1763, a multitude of new fortresses, defense towers and lookout posts were built, which made Havana the safest place of the Spanish colonies in Latin America.  In the 18th century Havana was outside the city walls more populous than the historic center.  In front of the walls, parks and “paseos” were created. In the middle of the 19th century, the city walls began to be razed. The three vacant lots were parceled out and built on piece by piece. This lengthy process did not end until the first decades of the 20th century with the construction of the Paseo del Prado, the Parque Central and the construction of the Capitol and the Presidential Palace.  The decline of the historic center as a residential area began as early as the middle of the 19th century. Many of the older palaces, in which until then only one family resided, have been sold and converted into multi-family houses or “cuidelas”, communal apartments of the lowest standard. New halls and factories were built, and industrial uses dominated the district.  At the beginning of the 20th century, under North American influence, a kind of financial and banking district developed on both sides of Calle Obispo, the so-called “Little Wall Street”, which, with its narrow, 7 to 10-storey eclectic buildings, is integrated into the old town far towered. Whether economic prosperity or crisis, the city continued to grow unchecked in the following epoch. Entire city districts were newly created. At first, the rectangular street grid was retained, but in the forties the blocks of houses became larger and the parcels more irregular. In the upper class districts such as in the Vedado, the plots reached a size that meant that the streetscape was dominated by lush private green spaces and the architecture took a back seat.  With the construction of a port tunnel under the bay, the city began to expand to the east. Until then, the harbor was a natural barrier. This made La Habana Vieja interesting again for property speculators. The victory of the revolution in 1959 stopped this ominous speculation, which had already destroyed irretrievable monuments. Overall, however, there were few major interventions in Havana.  Admittedly, there were not enough resources to guarantee systematic maintenance of the city. So today we have an intact city, heavily dilapidated, but the substance has been lively and active. Everything changed with the inclusion of the historic center on the UNESCO World Heritage List. With 214 hectares and more than 3,500 buildings, the historic center encompasses an urban and architectural culture that has grown over centuries and is unique in Latin America and the Caribbean. Countless building typologies and ensembles have been preserved. Despite the fragile condition and the associated risk of collapse, this ambience retains a special quality of living and authenticity.  The city historian‘s office, OHCH, Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de la Habana, has existed since 1938, with the task of preserving the city‘s cultural heritage. The history of this institution is divided into four stages. From its inception until 1964, Dr. Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring. He concentrated his work on the renovation of the “Palacio de los Capitanes Generales” in the Plaza de Armas and its expansion into the city museum and the headquarters of the OHCH. In the end of the 1970s campaigns begin to sensitize the population to the value of the historic city center. The first projects initiated a dynamic development of the old town. The third stage began in 1981 with the introduction of five-year plans for restoration work. It ended with the economic crisis in the early 1990s. In order to be able to continue renovating the old town even in times of crisis, the law “Ley 143” was passed in October 1993 by the executive body of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cuba.  It declares the World Heritage Area as a “first priority zone worth preserving”. With this act, the OHCH was raised to the national level and subordinated directly to the Council of Ministers. This led to a simplification of the decision-making structures and gave the OHCH the status of a “legal person” which is allowed to establish relationships with national and international companies and to conclude contracts, levy taxes on commercial activities and reinvest in renovation work in the old town. The OHCH then also founded its own tourism group “Habaguanex” in order to skim off profits from the hotel industry, gastronomy and retail trade in the old town.  The entire project to preserve the historic center is self-financed. The income comes from the tourism and real estate sector as well as from other companies in this corporate structure. Since the introduction of this new business model in 1994, the investment volume has increased annually. There has been a profit of $ 150 million over the past 10 years, which has been reinvested.  The investment is spread over 45% in commercial projects within the old town, which bring in profits, 35% goes into social projects such as apartment modernization, apartments for senior citizens and single mothers within the old town. The remaining 20% goes to development in other areas in the city or across Cuba. The OHCH is not only responsible for the old town, also all of Havana.  The actual development area spans a core zone of 3.6 square kilometers, it includes the old town and the historic Malecón. It is estimated that a third of all buildings within this zone have already been renovated and are fully functional. Traditional cultural institutions with artistic, social and economic activities exist again. So far 36 palaces and museums have been restored. Four of the five main squares in the old town with the adjacent streets have also been restored: the Plaza de Armas, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza Vieja.  The Plaza Vieja is a plaza design with a model character. A school, various cultural institutions, a hotel with a restaurant, renovated buildings with shops on the ground floor and completely renovated apartments on the upper floors, into which the old residents have moved back, are located next to each other. The apartment renovations are not about painting the facade, but about an extensive restoration of the building in terms of statics, lighting, water and gas installations, etc. Obispo Street, which as a shopping and pedestrian zone the most important squares of the old town with the Parque Central of Havana is essentially re-established.  The tasks of OHCH also include socio-cultural programs for children, young people, women and the disabled.  So far, 380 new apartments have been built for the residents of the historic center, and 75 more are under construction as replacement living space for those who have lost their previous living space as a result of the renovation. When the old town houses are converted into self-contained apartments, only half of the families can be accommodated. From the time of modernization onwards, these families pay rent for the first time, which, according to the social claim, is only 10% of the family income.  The social aspect of all these measures is job creation. 10.000 have already been created in the past 10 years. When assigning jobs, which range from architects, engineers, hotel managers, hotel staff, security services to street sweepers, the residents of the old town are always given special consideration.  They are aware that the work of the city historian and his branched office serves not only to restore historical building stock, but also to restore all activities that a city needs. The residents have also understood that tourism is one of the essential foundations of this development, because every new school, every new museum, every old people‘s home owes its existence to this source. The value of the old town is growing continuously, on the one hand for the residents, but also as a tourist attraction on the other. The income generated in this way makes it possible to secure the Habana Vieja World Heritage Site in the long term.

Cuban Ruins - Havana Today

    In Cuba, the indented intermediate levels are called “barbacoas”. They are created in many of the colonial buildings of the 18th century, which were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. Almost five meters high, very spacious rooms, which are also known from European mansions of that time, are divided in order to duplicate the actual living space. The building has a new internal structure, which can also be seen in the street space through additional openings in the facade.28 The ruins of Cuba are not free building shells, they are part of the daily living habitats. They are inhabited ruins, which are continuously change their using, extend, deform and change, till the “estaticas milagrosas” (wonder structures) reach their limits. On the one hand  visitors are shocked by the “catastrophic” situation of city, on the other hand the ruins are en vogue and the visitors are like in a competition to catch best pictures of the buildings and post them on social networks.29   The Cuban ruins do not leave room for nostalgia on closer inspection. They are part of the present and embody the stagnation of a country, it’s System appears doomed after the end of the Soviet Union. For the people of Cuba, this means above all a state of emergency, which, like socialism, can still be clearly felt. What we tourists want to see quickly from “authentic Cuba” “before it‘s too late” remains bitter everyday life on site. Of course there is running water. But you only realize later that the owners of the “casas particulares”, the private accommodation for tourists, whose standard of living far exceeds that of many Cubans, have to get up at 4 a.m. and fill the tank, which has to last for at least three days.Doctors and lawyers work as bouncers in the tourism industry in order to survive. A state monthly salary is equivalent to 25 euros. And the beautiful oldtimers shape the image of Havana not because of their style factor, but because there is simply nothing else. It is actually a miracle that the technology survived the rigors of socialism for so long, even outlasted it.30 In a documentary, five Cubans are visited in their living quarters. They tell of the difficulties with their dwelling, the constant repairing and mending, but above all the fear of not surviving the next falling stone.Despite the decay, the interior of the building continues to be compacted. The thoughtful use of the few existing materials and specially designed constructions are part of the individual construction process.In these places the socialist collective disintegrates into individuals whose creativity increases their chances in life. Havana, as the city par excellence, is growing inward. The building of ruins, named by Ponte Barackisierung, can be described as an architectural style that integrates into the urban structure. As an additive element, the barracking exists alongside the still intact colonial buildings of the center, the Art Nouveau preserved from the 19th century in between and the buildings of the modern age, such as the Habana Libre. This hotel was built by the Americans and can be reached via the „Rampa“, a central main axis at the end of the Malecon. The Vedado district begins here, on the main road between the sea and the houses that grow up the mountain. At the beginning of the 20th century, Vedado became the residential area of ​​the wealthy Upper class. Here Havana shows a different side. True are the buildings have been shaped by the years since the 1959 revolution, but even those Colonial buildings that stand here are far from being in the historical stateCenter comparable. The clear organization of the is characteristic of the Vedado Street space in a checkerboard pattern and the architecture of the modern age rising upwards protrudes. It‘s an inner-city, cultural center and you feel like you‘re in one real or urban one corresponding to European ideas Life to have arrived. Most of the high-rise buildings were built before the years of the revolution. Some, such as El Focsa, were currently owned the world‘s tallest buildings. The first large apartment buildings in the style of American Art Deco originated at the beginning of the 1940sYears. They transport the visitor directly into the film Metropolis. There was in Havana real high-rise boom, at the height of modernity, that with the revolution Fidel Castros ended in 1959. These buildings give Havana a different dimension and show the connection to global developments and technologies that existed before emerged from the revolution. In some buildings, such as the apartment building Solimar is a break with the past and the use of basic stylistic elements the modern, adapted to local conditions, particularly noticeable. Such elements, as well as references to Art Nouveau, also appear in other cities Cubas, such as Sancti Spíritus and Camagüey.31

Summary

  Havana was founded in november 1519, on the side of the current Plaza de Armas.  The Plaza de Armas became de center point of Havana, from which extended the first streets (Oficios and Mercaderes), which later guided the creation of the city’s street grid. Havana was granted city status in 1592 and was declared island capital in 1607. At beginning of the XVII Century, Havana was a walled city. As it grew, neighborhoods appeared. Wealthy people settled to the north of the city, and lower-class people settled to the south. The first building typologies of the city were bohío (houses), forts to protect the bay entrance, churches, civil administration building, and houses with yards and galleries around patios.32 The great struts were characteristic. People built with dividing walls and used local materials like: rock and wood. These design typologies were based on climatic factors and sustainability.People had to take advantage of natural sources of wind and sunlight to improve the quality of their living conditions. Also built multiple pitched roofs allowed residents to collect rainwater for cooking and bathing. (photo 1)33 The first extension of the city was at the end of XVIII century, resulting in the formation of the Central Havana municipality where residents built structures with similar characteristics to Old Havana. It was a compact zone based on typologies for living in homes with central courtyards or patios to the sides or rear of the house. One of the defining features of Central Havana  municipality are the arcades that ring the blocks of colonial buildings.34 During the XIX century the city of extramuros emerged, featuring more central public spaces, commercial building and more novel architectural typologies. In addition to improved designs to take  advantage of nature, such as yards for  ventilation, public buildings began  incorporating decorative and aesthetic  elements into their facades.  Through years began to seek a new  relationship with nature and showed up summer houses typologies, better known as  “Casas Quintas” (Cerro municipality)—houses with large gardens and gated yards—capitalized on natural aesthetics for their architectural designs and were available only to the wealthy of Havana. In the second half of the XIX century, the neighborhoods of el Vedado and Playa appeared, where architecture changed to meet the needs of the residents. In el Vedado and Playa, houses were arranged in semi-compact grid, with alleyways between houses.  The houses built were for high class people, had large gates and backyards and maximized the use of nature.  The houses were of low height, just one or two stories.35 The second sector of city was Miramar, built in the second decade of the XX century. Later in the first half of the XX century, residents began the construction of low-rise residential buildings and different styles houses. In the second half of the XX century, high-rise apartment complexes appeared, some of them with commercial services on the ground floor.  The construction of these buildings with  numerous apartments was meant to satisfy the demands to house a greater number of families. By this time the buildings were made of bricks or concrete, the carpentry were of wood, glass or aluminium.36

 

General Conlusion

Havana is an old city (declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982), that since its inception has kept many buildings, which have undergone changes in their use to meet the needs of the Cuban population and adapt to the hard economic situation of the country. The City of Havana presently is divided into 15 municipalities, and these in turn are divided into neighborhoods, all of them with different social characteristics, various preservation conditions and changes in architectural typologies.37 As the capital of the country, Havana has become the center of opportunity for the country, drawing migrants from the countryside. This has resulted in the appearance of precarious settlements and the renovation of existing structures, maximizing municipal living spaces. This dynamic was and is important because the people’s need for housing has birthed solares, makeshift shelters appropriating a number of square meters where they would start their life. These are housing extensions that people make on their own, both in buildings and in urban voids. They use materials such as wood and plasterboard for barbacoas. The needs of the city’s residents have progressively changed the typology of buildings, mainly in compact zones, where housing design has been dramatically affected by the structural overload created by an ever-increasing urban population. Moreover, such housing is generally in a state of great deterioration. These renovations, caused by the needs of an expanding urban population and the economic situation of country, has greatly influenced the image of the city. By the XXI century, Havana was and still is an overcrowded city, which requires urban-architectural renewal and repurposing capable of satisfy the current demands of society, both in public spaces and housing.38 The City of Havana needs housing construction to satisfy present and future demands, the recovery of heritage buildings in a state of deterioration and a comprehensive plan for urban renewal. Instead, an overview of architectural forms and their use in today‘s Havana has been created. The question of how things will continue on the island in the future, is currently being asked in many places. As far as architecture is concerned, there will certainly be a lot of interesting developments in the next few years that are related to the renovation of the existing building and the development of the residential situations on site. Above all, however, the question arises as to who is allowed to invest here. Anyone who thinks that Cuba could be bought up overnight is wrong. Buying a property is currently prohibited for non-Cubans. It goes without saying that a black market will arise at this point and that Cubans will join forces with external parties to do business. How this system will develop and whether Cuba can and will assert itself after years of isolation from world events remains to be seen.39
Carl Pruscha: 
 
“Havana is like a big American car, created in one time, but now there is no gas, no spare parts – you have to use it in some other way. The city which, like Havana, was created by different set of social, economic, cultural situations is still the body, but the body has no to deal with a different concept of use.”
Source: The Havana Project - Architecture Again

article written by Ailyn de la Caridad Sierra PanequeSermin Devecioglu, Huiyan Long
 

RESSOURCE

  1 Laura Peñaranda Currie, https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26188714.pdf, From Colonial Port to Post-Revolution: Urban Planning for 21st Century Havana, , 2012, pp. 51. 2 Administrator (2013): Urban Patterns | Havana, Cuba | The Outlaw Urbanist, in: The Outlaw Urbanist, [online] http://outlaw-urbanist.com/urban-patterns-havana-cuba [14.01.2021] 3 Administrator (2013): Urban Patterns | Havana, Cuba | The Outlaw Urbanist, in: The Outlaw Urbanist, [online] http://outlaw-urbanist.com/urban-patterns-havana-cuba [14.01.2021] 4 Administrator (2013): Urban Patterns | Havana, Cuba | The Outlaw Urbanist, in: The Outlaw Urbanist, [online] http://outlaw-urbanist.com/urban-patterns-havana-cuba [14.01.2021] 5 Laura Peñaranda Currie, https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26188714.pdf ,From Colonial Port to Post-Revolution: Urban Planning for 21st Century Havana, 2012, pp. 52. 6 Architekturführer Havanna, Eduardo Luis Rodriguez, Roberto Santana Duque Estrada, Dom publishers, pp.123, 2013. 7 Administrator (2013): Urban Patterns | Havana, Cuba | The Outlaw Urbanist, in: The Outlaw Urbanist, [online] http://outlaw-urbanist.com/urban-patterns-havana-cuba [14.01.2021]. 8 Administrator (2013): Urban Patterns | Havana, Cuba | The Outlaw Urbanist, in: The Outlaw Urbanist, [online] http://outlaw-urbanist.com/urban-patterns-havana-cuba [14.01.2021]. 9 Scaffolding and a City in Section: An Introduction to La Habana (2016a): in: society of architectural historians, [online] https://www.sah.org/publications-and-research/sah-blog/sah-blog/2016/12/05/scaffolding-and-a-city-in-section-an-introduction-to-la-habana [14.01.2021]. 10 Old Havana - New World Encyclopedia (o. J.): in: New World Encyclopedia, [online] https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Old_Havana [14.01.2021]. 11  A. Tablada, F. De Troyer, B. Blocken , J. Carmeliet, H. Verschure, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223701286, On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case, 2009, pp.1943-1944. 12  Tablada, F. De Troyer, B. Blocken , J. Carmeliet, H. Verschure, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223701286, On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case, 2009, pp.1945-1946. 13  Tablada, F. De Troyer, B. Blocken , J. Carmeliet, H. Verschure, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223701286, On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case, 2009, pp.1946. 14 Tablada, F. De Troyer, B. Blocken , J. Carmeliet, H. Verschure, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223701286, On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case, 2009, pp.1946. 15 Tablada, F. De Troyer, B. Blocken , J. Carmeliet, H. Verschure, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223701286, On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments – the Old Havana case, 2009, pp.1947-1948. 16 Eduardo Luis Rodriguez, Roberto Santana Duque Estrada, Architekturführer Havanna, 2013, p.35. 17  Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.18. 18 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.18. 19Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.18. 20  Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.18. 21 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.19. 22 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.19. 23 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.22. 24 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.22-24. 25 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.24. 26 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.25. 27 Eusebio Leal Spengler, La Habana Vieja, https://www.bauwelt.de/themen/bw_2004-12_La_Habana_Vieja_Weltkulturerbe_und_Altstadtsanierung_mit_Modellcharakter-2092958.html Weltkulturerbe und Altstadtsanierung mit Modellcharakter, Bauwelt 12, 2004, p.25. 28 Riccarda Cappeller, Kubanische Ruinen - Havanna heute und die Gegenwart von Gestern,  https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-BAUNETZWOCHE_464_4812078.html, Baunetzwoche#462, p.10.  29 Riccarda Cappeller, Kubanische Ruinen - Havanna heute und die Gegenwart von Gestern,  https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-BAUNETZWOCHE_464_4812078.html, Baunetzwoche#462, p.11.  30 Riccarda Cappeller, Kubanische Ruinen - Havanna heute und die Gegenwart von Gestern,  https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-BAUNETZWOCHE_464_4812078.html, Baunetzwoche#462, p.13. 31 Riccarda Cappeller, Kubanische Ruinen - Havanna heute und die Gegenwart von Gestern,  https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-BAUNETZWOCHE_464_4812078.html, Baunetzwoche#462, pp.15-18.  32 Diaz, Gómez Francisco, Aprendiendo de la Habana, Córdoba, noviembre 2004. 33 Zardoya, Victoria María, Conferencia 7 , Evolución de la vivienda siglo XVI, XVII, XVIII. arquitectura 2020. 34 Diaz, Gómez Francisco, Aprendiendo de la Habana, Córdoba, noviembre 2004. 35 Zardoya, Victoria María, Conferencia 12 , Urbanismo al siglo XIX, arquitectura 2020. 36 Rodríguez, Luis Eduardo,La arquitectura del movimiento moderno, do.co, mo.mo, Cuba,  Ediciones Unión, 2011 37  Diaz, Gómez Francisco, Aprendiendo de la Habana, Córdoba, noviembre 2004. 38 Rodríguez, Luis Eduardo,La arquitectura del movimiento moderno, do.co, mo.mo, Cuba,  39 Riccarda Cappeller, Kubanische Ruinen - Havanna heute und die Gegenwart von Gestern,  https://www.baunetz.de/meldungen/Meldungen-BAUNETZWOCHE_464_4812078.html, Baunetzwoche#462, pp.19-21.