- Student Work
According to the Koppen-Geiger climate classification map (Beck et al. 2018 ), Cuba experiences three major climates across its territory. Savannah (also referred to as Wet and Dry Tropical) climate is by far the most predominant. This is followed by Monsoon Tropical climate and Tropical Rainforest climate which are experienced at micro-scale localisations in proximity to mountain ranges and Tradewind coasts.
Under the Savanna climate, Cuba experiences two distinct seasons: wet season, running from late April to early November (summer), and dry season from late November to early April (winter). Summers are hot and humid with substantial rain and the average high temperatures of 32°C. Winters are warm and relatively dry with the average low temperatures of 20°C. Due to the trade winds and topography of the island, the Cuban winter is more noticeable in the western half of the island than in the eastern half. Throughout the entire year, Cuba enjoys plenty of sunny days with an average of 11 sunshine hours per day. The hurricane season lasts from July to November, with the peak of storm activity happening during September and October (INSMET n.d).
The Monsoon and Tropical Rainforest climates, exist in Cuba as localized micro-climate phenomena and are located close to mountainous areas and along the Tradewind coasts.
The Monsoon climate is associated with the seasonal reversal of the wind and can therefore be localized along the coasts and slightly higher altitudes. Here, the precipitation is concentrated in the high-sun season from May to September with higher humidity than in the rest of the country.
The Tropical Rainforest Climate is characterized by a year-round wet (summer) season with frequent and heavy rains and high humidity. The day-night variation in temperature is much more significant than that in the areas experiencing the Savannah climate and larger than the yearly variation in day temperature. Annually, however, the daytime temperature remains constant throughout.
The main factors influencing the climatic conditions of Cuba are the trade winds, latitude, and water surroundings.